Timeline of previous vaccine development (years)
Sources: Capital Group, NIAID, Our World in Data. Date ranges represent the approximate time between the year the pathogenic agent was first linked to the disease and the year that its vaccine became licensed in the U.S.
Sources: Capital Group, Time, Moderna, Pfizer, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, World Health Organization.
Active cancer cell therapies in development
Source: Cancer Research Institute. Data as of May 2020. Immunotherapy is the artificial stimulation of the immune system to treat cancer. The seven categories of immunotherapy are based on the mechanism of actions to treat cancer.