1. Data as at 13 May 2021. Source: Vaclav Smil (2017) & BP Statistical Review of World Energy. Published online at OurWorldInData.org
Primary energy is calculated based on the ‘substitution method’, which takes account of the inefficiencies in fossil fuel production by converting non-fossil energy into the energy inputs required if they had the same conversion losses as fossil fuels.
2. Data as at September 2020. Source: SystemIQ analysis for the Energy Transitions Commission (2020), IEA (2017), Energy Technology Perspectives, Catalysing Energy Technology Transformations Global Infrastructure Hub, Material Economics (2018), Industry Transformation 2050, IEA (2019), World Energy Outlook
3. Source Capital Group analyst estimates
4 Estimates shown for illustrative purposes only. Sources: Eurostat for 2000-2018 data.
2019-2020 data are estimates from Ember/Agora
5 Net zero requires replacing roughly 145,000 terawatt hours (TWh) of fossil-based energy with renewables
6 Source: Ørsted